Geostructural mapping of karstified limestones
AbstractThe goal of the present paper is presentation of the structural mapping of the karstified limestones, and the relations between the surface and the underground karstification. When mapping on the large scale the frequency of the dip and strike must be increased. Possible intebeds of alien rock must be registered. Measurements of the dip make it possible to ascertain possible plicative deformations. Intercalations of non-carbonate rocks influence the underground water flow and affect the formation, shaping and location of the karst voids as well as the surface karst features. For the understanding of the karstification processes exhaustive collection of structural data, and recognition of broken, crushed and fractured zones within and parallel to fault zones, plus thrust–shear–zones are essential. As spatial organization and dimensions of the underground karst voids, as the surface karst shaping are guided by thrust parallel and fault induced deflection structures. All structural elements, which include tectonic elements as well as bedding planes, lithological changes, lithological partings, less permeable or impermeable interbeds, plus structural elements contribute to the structural framework. It directs both vertical percolation and horizontal streaming within the limestone and influence the frequency, size, spatial distribution, and shape of interconnected karst voids. The later form the speleogenetic network. Due to the permanent denudation the intersection of the Earth surface and the structural framework and speleogenetic network permanently moves downwards. New structural elements emerge while speleological structures change to less recognizable succession objects. The surface of the karst may be characterized as a dynamic, spatial, hydrogeological and speleological succession system permanently affected by the current tectonic activity.
How to Cite
Čar, J. (2018). Geostructural mapping of karstified limestones. Geologija, 61(2), 133–162. https://doi.org/10.5474/geologija.2018.010