Systematic overview of geological learning objectives and textbook contents for primary schools and gymnasiums


  • Rok Brajković
  • Mojca Bedjanič
  • Neža Malenšek Andolšek
  • Nina Rman
  • Matevž Novak
  • Kaja Šušmelj
  • Petra Žvab Rožič



Teaching of geological contents in elementary school and gymnasiums has not yet been systematically addressed. Under the auspices of Slovenian Geological Society, members of the Task Group for the Popularization of Geology, have set themselves the goal of gaining insight into the teaching of geological contents in elementary schools and gymnasiums. Review also covered general matura examination as it represents the completion of secondary education. In order to provide an overview of the teaching of geological contents, we first reviewed the subject curricula and the knowledge catalog for general matura subjects. We also reviewed valid textbooks and general matura exam questions. The extracted geological contents were classified into six general geological content assemblages. All extracted geological content was evaluated according to Bloom's taxonomy, which, on the basis of structure, enables the recognition of the taxonomic complexity of learning objectives and knowledge tests. We also evaluated cross-curricular relationships. We have discovered that geological contents are taught in elementary school in obligatory subjects such as Society, Natural sciences and engineering, Natural sciences, Geography, Biology and in optional subject Environmental education. In gymnasiums geological contents are taught in the subjects Geography and Biology, where knowledge is also checked at general matura. Learning objectives and contents are mostly appropriately upgraded, but the content presented in textbooks is often insufficient and professionally inadequate. There is also a lack of the important geological topics in the field of formal education. For individual cross-curricular sections, we have made recommendations for promoters of science to contribute to a better understanding and the correct and professional content presentation in public. The presentation of geology in the textbooks is discrete, often professionally flawed, and the content is very limited. This research provies a starting point for starting the placement of updated and appropriate geological contents into formal education.


How to Cite

Brajković, R., Bedjanič, M., Malenšek Andolšek, N., Rman, N., Novak, M., Šušmelj, K., & Žvab Rožič, P. (2018). Systematic overview of geological learning objectives and textbook contents for primary schools and gymnasiums. Geologija, 61(2), 239–252.




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