Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses


  • Mihael Brenčič
  • Polona Vreča



Paper explores the possible use of d-excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from BRENCIC and VRECA's paper (2006). Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d-excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d-excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and favoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d-excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰) exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d-excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰). More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.


How to Cite

Brenčič, M., & Vreča, P. (2014). Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses. Geologija, 57(2), 231–243.




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